Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between dietary flavonoid intakes and cardiovascular diseases. Citrus fruits are the main winter fruits consumed in the Mediterranean diet, so they are the main source of dietary flavonoids. The possible beneficial effects are due, not only to the high amounts of vitamins and minerals, but also to the antioxidant properties of their flavonoids. Dietary flavonoids may help to supplement the body antioxidant defences against free radicals. These compounds’ possible beneficial effects are due to their antioxidant activity, which is related to the development of atherosclerosis and cancer, and to anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity. The present review summarizes the existing bibliography on biological and pharmacological studies of Citrus flavonoids, both in vitro and in vivo .
This BioCoach module is designed to help you review cell structure. You will find information about the structure of prokaryotic cells and the structure of eukaryotic cells, with a focus on the latter. Animations and interactive activities will enrich your review experience in a dynamic way. This module is designed to be a supplement to, but not a replacement for, your textbook and classroom notes. You can test your understanding of morphology and function of the key structural components described by using the Self-Quiz at the end of the module.
Structure plays an important role in heterogeneous catalysis. It provides a framework for the arrangement and stragetic placement of key catalytic elements, hosting them in a prescribed manner so that their respective electronic properties can exhibit their desired catalytic functions and mutual interactions. Under reaction conditions these framework structures and their catalytic guests undergo dynamic processes becoming active participants of the overall catalytic process. They are not mere static geometric forms. The dynamics of catalytic structures are particularly vivid in selective oxidation catalysis where the lattice of a given catalytic solid partakes as a whole, not only its surface, in the redox processes of the reaction. The catalyst becomes actually a participating reagent. By proper choice of key catalytic elements and their host structures, preferred catalytic pathways can be selected over less desired ones. However, not only in selective redox catalysis does structure play an important role, its importance is also well documented, among others, in shape selective zeolite catalysis, enantioselective hydrogenation and hydrodesulfurization.