Anabolic steroids are synthetic substances related to male sex hormones (androgens). Although it is illegal in the United States to possess or distribute anabolic steroids for nonmedical use, a "black market" for them exists, and many amateur and professional athletes take them to enhance performance. In many cases, the athletes take doses that are extremely high—perhaps 100 times the doses that might be prescribed for medical use. As a result, they put themselves in real danger of short-term and long-term health problems. Blood testing, as has been used in the Olympic Games, can detect, identify, and quantify the presence of anabolic steroids in the blood of athletes, which can lead to the disqualification of an athlete.
Arthur W. Toga is the Director, Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, Director, Institute of Neuroimaging and Informatics, Provost Professor, Departments of Ophthalmology, Neurology, Psychiatry, and the Behavioral Sciences, Radiology and Engineering at the Keck School of Medicine of USC. His research is focused on neuroimaging, informatics, mapping brain structure and function, and brain atlasing. He has developed multimodal imaging and data aggregation strategies and applied them in a variety of neurological diseases and psychiatric disorders. His work in informatics includes the development and implementation of some of the largest and most widely used databases and data mining tools linking disparate data from genetics, imaging, clinical and behavior, supporting global efforts in Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s and Parkinson’s disease. He was trained in neuroscience and computer science and has written more than 1,000 papers, chapters and abstracts, including eight books. Recruited to USC in 2013, he directs the Laboratory of Neuro Imaging. This 110-member laboratory includes graduate students from computer science, biostatistics and neuroscience. It is funded with grants from the National Institutes of Health grants as well as industry partners. He has received numerous awards and honors in computer science, graphics and neuroscience. Prior to coming to USC he was a Distinguished Professor Neurology at UCLA, held the Geffen Chair of Informatics at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Associate Director of the UCLA Brain Mapping Division within the Neuropsychiatric Institute, and Associate Dean, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA. He is the founding Editor-in-Chief of the journal NeuroImage and holds the chairmanship of numerous committees within NIH and a variety of international task forces.
Acid / Alkaline Reactions
Anodal and Cathodal Reactions in response to Iontophoresis
Polarity, Current Intensity and Drug Concentrations
General Principles of Application
Safe Current Density
Preparation and Delivery
Iontophoresis is a technique which uses an electric current to deliver a medicine or other chemical through the skin. In popular (lay) terms it is sometimes called "an injection without the needle". In the past it has sometimes been called Electromotive Drug Administration, though in modern therapy, this is a rarely employed term.