Relative potency of ophthalmic steroids

When a drug is used therapeutically, it is important to understand the margin of safety that exists between the dose needed for the desired effect and the dose that produces unwanted and possibly dangerous side-effects (measured by the TD 50 , the dose that produces toxicity in 50% of individuals). This relationship, termed the therapeutic index , is defined as the ratio TD 50 : ED 50 . In general, the narrower this margin, the more likely it is that the drug will produce unwanted effects. The therapeutic index emphasizes the importance of the margin of safety, as distinct from the potency, in determining the usefulness of a drug.

If you want to safely get the effects of anaerobically cured bud, all you have to do is cure buds in jars for 2+ months. They start to slowly get a similar appearance and consistency of bud cured in anaerobic conditions, but instead of being harsh they actually get smoother over time. The mental and physical effects of long-cured buds also seems to get stronger as it's cured longer (up to a point), giving similar heady and body effects that some describe as being a little "drunk." Long-cured buds gives you the same benefits without the harshness or lack of safety. Because of that, I highly recommend avoiding sealing up buds that feel wet on the outside during the curing process!

Opioids are a class of compounds that elicit analgesic (pain killing) effects in humans and animals by binding to the µ-opioid receptor within the central nervous system . The following table lists opioid and non-opioid analgesic drugs and their relative potencies . Values for the potencies represent opioids taken orally unless another route of administration is provided. As such, their bioavailabilities differ, and they may be more potent when taken intravenously . Methadone is different from most opioids considering its potency can vary depending on how long it is taken. Acute use, 1–3 days, yields a potency about × stronger than that of morphine and chronic use (7 days+) yields a potency about to 5× that of morphine due to methadone being stored in fat tissue, thus giving higher serum levels with longer use. [ citation needed ] Similarly, the effect of tramadol increases after consecutive dosing due to the accumulation of its active metabolite and an increase of the oral bioavailability in chronic use, this effect becomes less significant again with even longer use as tolerance develops. [ citation needed ]

Relative potency (REP) estimates are widely used to characterize and compare the potency of a wide variety of samples analyzed using in vitro bioassays. Relative potency estimates are generally calculated as a simple ratio: the EC50 of a well-characterized standard divided by the EC50 of a sample. Such estimates are valid only when the dose-response curves for the sample and standard are parallel and exhibit the same maximum achievable response (efficacy). These conditions are often either violated or cannot be demonstrated. As a result, there is a need to calculate and present REPs in a manner that addresses the potential uncertainties caused by violation of the assumptions of parallelism and equal efficacy. Multiple point estimates, over the range of responses from EC20 to EC80, can be used to derive relative potency ranges (REP 20–80 range). The width of a REP 20–80 range is directly proportional to the degree of deviation from parallelism between sample and standard dose-response curves. Thus, REP 20–80 ranges both test the assumption of parallelism and characterize the amount of uncertainty in an REP estimate resulting from deviation from parallelism. Although uncertainties due to unequal efficacy cannot be easily characterized mathematically, a systematic method for evaluating sample efficacy has been developed into a framework to guide the derivation and application of REP estimates based on in vitro bioassay results. Use of the systematic framework and REP 20–80 ranges was illustrated using three sample data sets. It is hoped that the framework and discussion presented will facilitate the use of bioassay-derived REP estimates to characterize samples of both known and unknown composition without ignoring the assumptions underlying REP estimation.

Relative potency of ophthalmic steroids

relative potency of ophthalmic steroids

Relative potency (REP) estimates are widely used to characterize and compare the potency of a wide variety of samples analyzed using in vitro bioassays. Relative potency estimates are generally calculated as a simple ratio: the EC50 of a well-characterized standard divided by the EC50 of a sample. Such estimates are valid only when the dose-response curves for the sample and standard are parallel and exhibit the same maximum achievable response (efficacy). These conditions are often either violated or cannot be demonstrated. As a result, there is a need to calculate and present REPs in a manner that addresses the potential uncertainties caused by violation of the assumptions of parallelism and equal efficacy. Multiple point estimates, over the range of responses from EC20 to EC80, can be used to derive relative potency ranges (REP 20–80 range). The width of a REP 20–80 range is directly proportional to the degree of deviation from parallelism between sample and standard dose-response curves. Thus, REP 20–80 ranges both test the assumption of parallelism and characterize the amount of uncertainty in an REP estimate resulting from deviation from parallelism. Although uncertainties due to unequal efficacy cannot be easily characterized mathematically, a systematic method for evaluating sample efficacy has been developed into a framework to guide the derivation and application of REP estimates based on in vitro bioassay results. Use of the systematic framework and REP 20–80 ranges was illustrated using three sample data sets. It is hoped that the framework and discussion presented will facilitate the use of bioassay-derived REP estimates to characterize samples of both known and unknown composition without ignoring the assumptions underlying REP estimation.

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