Chapter 20 hormones and steroids

Figure 7-7. Antidepressants over the life cycle . The efficacy, tolerability, and safety of antidepressants have been studied mostly in individuals between the ages of 25 and 64. Existing data across all age groups suggest that the risk–benefit ratio is most favorable for adults between the ages of 25 and 64 and somewhat less so for adults between the ages of 19 and 24, due to a possibly increased risk of suicidality in younger adults. Limited data in children and adolescents also suggest increased risk of suicidality; this, coupled with a lack of data demonstrating clear antidepressant efficacy, gives children between the ages of 6 and 12 the worst risk–benefit ratio, with adolescents intermediate between young adults and children. Elderly patients, 65 years of age and older, may not respond as well or as quickly to antidepressants as other adults and may also experience more side effects than younger adults.

Externa: FB connective tissue

Media: Artery Smooth Muscle and Elastic fibers. For veins smooth muscle only.

Interna: Simple squamous endothelium

Define: elasticity, contractility, vasoconstrict, and vasodilate

Elasticity: The condition or property of being elastic; flexibility

Contractility: contractility represents the intrinsic ability of the heart/myocardium to contract

Vasoconstrict: Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels

Vasodilate: Vasodilation refers to the widening of blood vessels resulting from relaxation of smooth muscle cells within the vessel walls.

The cerebellum in rodents is a sensitive target organ of thyroid hormones (56,57). Thyroid hormones are involved in the late phase of granular cell migration from the external germinal layer (EGL) to the internal granular layer (IGL). A characteristic feature of the hypothyroid cerebellum is a delay in the migration of granule cells so that the EGL persists beyond P20 (Fig 1) (58). This process takes place postnatally in rodents and is completed by P20, when the EGL disappears. Recognized cellular targets of thyroid hormone are the Purkinje cells and the Bergman glia (57). Proliferating granular cells migrate through the molecular layer, along the fibers of Bergmann glial cells, when they exit the cell cycle. The main factor for this control is Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), produced by the Purkinje cells. The encoding gene, Shh is a transcriptional target of T3 (59,42).

Estrogen is actually a broad term referring to several different forms. The 3 main estrogens are known as E1, E2 and E3. The proper name for E1 is Estrone. This is a very strong form of estrogen and usually the one that becomes dominant in later life because the body continues to produce it. Estradiol is known as E2 and is also a very strong estrogen. However, it can become deficient in later life and you can experience symptoms and could possibly need to supplement it. E3 is Estriol (known as the gentle estrogen) Estriol is a very protective form of estrogen and is the estrogen most dominant during pregnancy because of its ability to protect the fetus.

Chapter 20 hormones and steroids

chapter 20 hormones and steroids

Estrogen is actually a broad term referring to several different forms. The 3 main estrogens are known as E1, E2 and E3. The proper name for E1 is Estrone. This is a very strong form of estrogen and usually the one that becomes dominant in later life because the body continues to produce it. Estradiol is known as E2 and is also a very strong estrogen. However, it can become deficient in later life and you can experience symptoms and could possibly need to supplement it. E3 is Estriol (known as the gentle estrogen) Estriol is a very protective form of estrogen and is the estrogen most dominant during pregnancy because of its ability to protect the fetus.

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chapter 20 hormones and steroidschapter 20 hormones and steroidschapter 20 hormones and steroidschapter 20 hormones and steroidschapter 20 hormones and steroids