This paper presents a 13C CP/MAS NMR study of the melanin pigments obtained through natural and synthetic origins: sepia-melanin from squid ink and three synthetic 5,6-dihydroxyindole-melanins prepared using different non-enzymatic oxidation pathways. The synthetic pigments can be distinguished from natural melanin by the absence of aliphatic carbons, thereby confirming the unreacted 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and the proteinaceous origins of the aliphatic resonances in natural eumelanin. The spectra of selected non-protonated carbon resonances and those with only protonated carbon signals led to a quantitative analysis. An auto-oxidative experiment using a synthetic melanin, over a period of 130 h, has shown an unusually slow disappearance of hydrogen peroxide formed in situ. The 13C-NMR spectrum of the insoluble oxidized synthetic melanin compared to that before auto-oxidation clearly demonstrates that the oxidation process is associated with chemical changes within the pigment; ., carbonyl functional group formation and an increase of the non-protonated carbons fraction.